Pine Forest

We learned that Poland has a robust administration of forest lands. These are mostly pines. The area of pine forest has increased since Poland moved from a Communist political structure to parliamentarian. The Pine forest was something like 12% and now is closer to 27% in area.

Excavation fun

Excavation fun

We looked at special soils that were in a forested area on the city edge. The soils have formed in sandy materials deposited as glaciers receded some 20 thousand years ago. Interestingly the students learned that there were distinct layers of different sized sands in the subsoil. These different sized sands in horizontal packets in the soil are a result of river or stream reworking of the sands. The coarser sands being associated with more energy of the water and finer with less energy. As they talked about the soil processes of additions, losses, transformations, and translocations they were very confident in these concepts because we were seeing evidence where it was/is happening.

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A happy day in a beautiful place.

I snapped a picture of some of the students in the forest at a crossroad. They do look pleased.

About Donald McGahan

Donald G. McGahan is an Assistant Professor of Soil Science at Tarleton State Univeristy (A member of the Texas A&M System) in Texas USA. His professional site can be viewed at
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